- Han Imperial Library. Catalogue preserved in the Yiwenzhi chapter of the Book of Han. At the time of inventory contained 596 works divided into six genres; scripture, philosophy, poetry, warfare, astrology, and medicine.
- Qin reign (third century BCE): It was the practice of Chinese emperors to assemble and maintain their official written archive. The first Qin emperor was a determined opponent of Confucianism, and worked to eradicate texts and teachings of that philosophy. 
- Tang dynasty (6th–10th century): The Tang Dynasty is known as the Golden Age of Imperial Chinese history. Academy libraries were places where young men came to study for civil service exams, and became an important part of the Chinese meritocracy. Private collection of books was also common during this time. Wood-block printing spread throughout the kingdom at this time, making books more affordable. Social status was determined, in part, by the cultural refinement acquired through personal book collections.
IndiaThe great seats of learning in the ancient Indian subcontinent include:
- Takshasila (6th to 5th century BC in modern-day Pakistan),
- Nalanda (founded in 427) was considered "one of the first great universities in recorded history". In 1193, the Nalanda University complex was invaded and sacked by the Slave Dynasty under the Turkic Muslim general Bakhtiyar Khilji; this event is seen as a milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India.
- Vikramshila (8th century)
- Kanchipuram and other universities, also maintained vast libraries of palm leaf manuscripts on various subjects, ranging from theology to astronomy.
- The Academy of Gundishapur in western Iran, established during the Persian Sassanid Empire in the 3rd through 6th centuries in Amol city (Mzandaran province).The breadth of this institution was enormous and included a university, teaching hospital, and a library filled with over 400,000 titles. The academy was the epitome of the Sassanid Empire with its faculty highly proficient in the conventions of Zoroastrianism and ancient Persian as well as classical Indian scholarship.